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The treaty signed in London however had no practical application because of Serbia's refusal to give Macedonia over to Bulgaria. Greece with which there was no agreement for distribution of territories, insisted on Bulgarians leaving Thessalonica. The First Balkan War was over but the smell of gunpowder was still in the air on the Balkans. All Balkan countries were talking about peace but in the same time preparing for a new war.

Without taking into account the threat from Romania and the Ottoman Empire, Bulgarian Supreme Commandment was impatient to give a lesson to their former allies and to push their occupation armies out of indisputably Bulgarian territories. On 15 June 1913 General Savov reported to King Ferdinand about the destruction of the village of Zletovo before the eyes of the volunteers from Macedonia and Ederne and concluded: "There is no way out of this situation". King Ferdinand I issued an order: "Give the Serbs a lesson. Answer with the same measure!".

During the night of 16 - 17 June, the most fateful night in modern Bulgarian history, Bulgaria, surrounded by enemies and deprived of real support of at least one of the Great Powers, began the Inter-Ally War. Taking advantage of its military commitment in the south, Romania declared mobilization and on 28 June attacked First Bulgarian Army from behind. Its army reached Sofia without difficulty and on 30 June Turkey, without openly declaring hostilities, crossed the Midia - Eneos line and retrieved the entire Ederne Vylaet. Bulgaria found itself in war with all its neighbours. And despite the heroism of Bulgarian soldiers who managed to stop the united army of Serbia and Montenegro in the Kaliman Plato and surround the Greek army in the Kresna gorge with a brave counteroffensive (4-10 July), on 28 July 1913 Bulgaria was forced to sign the Bucharest Peace Treaty. According to its provisions Bulgaria lost Southern Dobrudzha, annexed 1/10 of Macedonia and the Rila-Rhodope Mountains and received access to the Aegean Sea between the rivers Mesta and Maritsa. According to the treaty signed on 16 September 1913 in Istanbul with the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria annexed only Malko Turnovo and Svilengrad. Bulgarians in Macedonia, Ederne and Southern Dobrudzha were subjected to national assimilation and physical annihilation. About 250 000 people sought refuge in Bulgaria. Bulgaria lost in the war more than 30 000 men and ended up robbed, divided, and with its economy destroyed. This was the first national catastrophe.

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